Nyanza (Ukerewe), Nile Valley & Rest Of Africa

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African Antiquity: "Debate" {Afrocentric Side}


African Antiquity: "Debate" {Mainstream Side}


African Antiquity: Resources {Afrocentric}


African Antiquity: Resources {Mainstream/General}



NOTE: Most of the works below are readily available via the Web, at All Black Books, or Cush City or any of the usual online bookstores based in North America and around the world. A few of the older works are harder to locate online (they can occasionally be located via the MX BookFinder gateway), but are always available directly from the indicated publishers or reprinters such as Black Classic Press.


Continental & Diasporan

This section lists books which cover multiple regions of the Continent & the Diaspora.

The books by the late Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop that are listed here represent just part of a larger body of work by this Senegalese author who set a very high standard for modern scholarly research on indigenous African peoples, cultures & civilisations, not merely in the Nile Valley but across the entire Continent. Diop, who died in 1986, was quite the latter-day Imhotep or "Renaissance Man". He was a nuclear physicist, anthropologist / archaeologist, Egyptologist, linguist, historian and philosopher. In his books, he rigorously demonstrated the kinship between the indigenous civilisations of Africa, especially North-East and West. For an overview of his work, see John Henrik Clarke's 1974 article "Cheikh Anta Diop and the New Light on African History".

Dr. Théophile Obenga is one of the better-known protégés of the late Dr. C.A. Diop. This Congolese author has continued in the spirit of his predecessor. He is the author of several scholarly works on indigenous African peoples, cultures & civilisations, as well as the influence of the Nile Valley on the Hellenic world. He is one of the driving forces in ANKH, a groundbreaking jorunal in the French-speaking world, with scholarly articles on African Antiquity and more.

Prof. Ivan Van Sertima's (Edited) journal is one of the highest-calibre ones of its kind in the English-speaking world. Prof. Van Sertima is of Guyanese origin. He currently teaches in the African Studies Dept. at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Prof. Van Sertima and the many scholars who contribute to the JAC series have been heavily influenced by Diop. Of course, Prof. Van Sertima is also a well-known author in his own right. Two of his best-known books discuss the African presence in Early America (the so-called "Pre-Colombian" period):- "They Came Before Columbus" (New York: Random House, 1976), and the follow-up "Early America Revisited" (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1998).






Clarke, John Henrik

(The) African in the New World: Their Contribution to Science, Invention and Technology   {Lecture}

In NBUF's Virtual Museums of the MASTERS series, The John Henrik Clarke Virtual Museum, The African in the New World, 1986.

Overview of achievements by people of African descent in the Americas, particularly the US Diaspora.

African People in World History   {Lecture}

Baltimore: Black Classic Press; 1993

Overview of Nile Valley and other African civilisations.

Education for a New Reality in the African World   {Lecture}

In NBUF's Virtual Museums of the MASTERS series, The John Henrik Clarke Virtual Museum, Education for a New Reality in the African World, 1994.

Contributions of African people to human progress, and a plan of action for restoration via education.

Diop , Cheikh Anta

African Origin of Civilisation

New York: Lawrence Hill & Co.; 1974 [Transl.]

Also in the original French as two related works:- "Nations nègres et Culture" (Paris: Présence Africaine; 1954), and "Antériorité des Civilisation Nègres: Mythe ou Vérité Historique?" (Paris: Présence Africaine; 1967)

Monumental work, providing evidence for a Black African origin of the Nile valley civilisations, especially Kemet. Essential reading.

Black Africa: The Economic and Cultural Basis for a Federated State

New York: Lawrence Hill & Co.; 1978 [Transl.]

Also in the original French as:- "Les Fondements Culturels, Techniques et Industriels d'un Futur État Fédéral d'Afrique Noire" (Paris: Présence Africaine; 1960), or the newer edition "Les Fondements Economiques et Culturels d'un État Fédéral d'Afrique Noire" (Paris: Présence Africaine; 1974)

A little book with a big idea:- a schematic blueprint for an "African Union" focused on self-help, decades before today's New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD). Essential reading.

Civilisation or Barbarism

New York / Westport: Lawrence Hill & Co., 1991 [Transl.]

Also in the original French as:- "Civilisation ou Barbarie" (Paris: Présence Africaine; 1981, 1988 [2nd Ed.])

Monumental work, covering many topics drawn from his lifelong research, including African philosophy and mathematics. Essential reading.

(The) Cultural Unity of Black Africa

Chicago: Third World Press; 1974, 1978 [2nd. Ed.] [Transl.]

London: Karnak House; 1990 [Transl.]

Also in the original French as:- "L'Unité Culturelle de l'Afrique Noire" (Paris: Présence Africaine; 1959, 1982 [2nd Ed.])

Cultural ties (matrilineal descent, etc.) between the Nile Valley and the rest of Africa, in comparison with patriarchy in the Hellenic world, and more.

Precolonial Black Africa

New York / Westport: Lawrence Hill & Co.; 1986 [Transl.]

Also in the original French as:- "L'Afrique Noire Précoloniale" (Paris: Présence Africaine; 1960, 1987 [2nd Ed.])

Sudanic civilisations (Mali & Songhai), and more.

Obenga, Théophile

Africa in Antiquity : Pharaonic Egypt - Black Africa

London: Karnak House; 1997 [Transl.]

Also available in the original French as:- "L'Afrique dans l'Antiquité: Égypte Ancienne - Afrique Noire" (Paris: Présence Africaine; 1973)

Ancient Africa: the Nile Valley and the rest of the Continent.

African Philosophy during the Time of the Pharaohs

London / Chicago: Karnak House; 1995 [Transl.]

Also in the original French as:- "Philosophie Africaine de la Période Pharaonique, 2780-330 Avant Notre Ère" (Paris: L'Harmattan; 1990)

Nile Valley philosophy.

A Lost Tradition: African Philosophy in World History

Princeton, NJ: Sungai Corp.; 1997

Also in the original French as:- ____ (Paris: Présence Africaine; 19__)

Nile Valley philosophy, again; this time in the wider context of the world, especially the African influence on Ancient Greek philosophers & philosophy.

Ancient Egypt and Black Africa: A Student's Handbook

London: Karnak House; 1992 [Transl.]

Also in the original French as four essays prepared for the 5th Annual Conference of Afrkan Origin of Civilisation, at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK, in Oct. 1990

Kemetic philosophy. African origin of "Greek" philsophy. Linguistiic connections between Ancient Kemet and other African peoples. Genger relations in Kemet.

Pre-colonial Central Africa

London / Chicago : Karnak House; 1995 [Transl.]

Also available in the original French as:- "Afrique centrale précoloniale : Documents d'Histoire Vivante" (Paris: Présence Africaine; 1974)

Civilisations of the Congo, etc., during pre-colonial times.

Van Sertima , Ivan (Ed.)

Journal of African Civilizations {Series}, including:-

New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers; [Various Years]


  • African Presence in Early Asia (Vol. 7, No. 2; 1985, 1988 [Rev.])

African contributions to Ancient China, Ancient India (Harrapan & Indus Valley), and more.

  • African Presence in Early America (Vol. 9, No. 1; 1987)

African influence on the Olmec civilisation, and more.

  • Black Women in Antiquity (Vol. 6, No. 1; 1984, 1988 [Rev.])

Hatshepsut, Ahmes-Nefertari, and more.

  • Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern (Vol. 5, Nos. 1 & 2; 1983, 1990 [Rev.])

Ancient African science (Kenya, Nile Valley, etc.), African-American science, and more.

  • Egypt: Child of Africa (Vol. 12, Nos. 1 & 2; 1990)

Ancient Nile Valley civilisations in depth, again.

  • Egypt Revisited (Vol. 11, Nos. 1 & 2; 1989, 1991 [2nd Ed.])

Ancient Nile Valley civilisations in depth.

  • Great African Thinkers, Vol. 1: Cheikh Anta Diop (Vol. 8, No. 2; 1986)

Survey and appreciation of Dr. Diop's life & work.



This section lists books which cover a single region of the Continent.

Most of these works are by the current "elder statesmen" of the Afrocentric scholarly community. In particular, Dr. Molefi Kete Asante is considered the "father" of Afrocentrism as a humanist philosophical system.






Asante, Molefi Kete

Classical Africa

Maywood, NJ: Peoples Pub. Group; 1994

Nile Valley civilisations.

(The) Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African Voices from Imhotep to Akhenaten

Chicago: African American Images; 2000

Kemetic philosophy.

__: __; 19__

A reply to the "Eurocentric" critics of Afrocentricity. [See: Lefkowitz, Mary - "Not Out Of Africa", below.]

Kemet, Afrocentricity and Knowledge

Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1990

Legacy of Nile Valley civilisations.

ben-Jochannon, Yosef A. A.

Africa: Mother of "Western Civilisation"

New York: Alkebu-lan Books Associates; 1970 [Original]

Baltimore: Black Classic Press; 1988 [Reprint]

Nile Valley influence on Ancient Greece, and more.

African Origins of the Major "Western Religions"

New York: Alkebu-lan Books Associates; 1970 [Original]

Baltimore: Black Classic Press; 1991 [Reprint]

Nile Valley influence on Judaism, Christian & Islam, and more.

Black Man of the Nile

New York: Alkebu-lan Books Associates; 1972 [Original]

Baltimore: Black Classic Press; 1989 [Reprint]

Exhaustive history of the Ancient Nile Valley.

Boahen, Adu

Topics in West African History

Harlow: Longman Group UK; 1986 [2nd Edition])

West African civilisations, and more.

Carruthers, Jacob H.

Mdw Ntr: Divine Speech

London: Karnak House; 1995

Kemetic writing and sacred philosophy.

Carruthers, Jacob H., and Leon C. Harris (Eds.)

African World History Project: The Preliminary Challenge

Los Angeles: Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations (ASCAC); 1997

In-depth discussion of the Nile Valley civilisations.

Clegg, Legrand H.

A Brief History of Africentric Scholarship   {Article}

In "MAAT News", Vol. 1. Ed. 2, Jan. 1997

Overview of the "Africentric" movement.

Cruse, Harold

(The) Crisis of the Negro Intellectual

New York: Morrow; 1967

The perils of cultural negation, particularly in the US Diaspora.

Rebellion or Revolution?

New York: Morrow; 1968

The need for a "centred" cultural framework.

DuBois, William Edward Burghardt

(The) World and Africa: An inquiry into the part which Africa has played in World History

New York: International Publishers; 1961

Classic by one of the foremost African-American scholars of his time, covering the Nile Valley civilisations, and more.

Finch, Charles S. III, M.D.

(The) Star of Deep Beginnings: The Genesis of African Science and Technology

Decatur, GA: Khenti Inc.; 1998

Kemetic science, and more.

Garvey, Marcus Mosiah  {Edited/Compiled by Amy Jacques Garvey}

(The) Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

New York: Universal Publishing House; 1923-25 [Original]

Dover, MA: Majority Press; 1986 [Centennial Ed.]

[+ several other editions]

Inspiring words & deeds of a Jamaica-born hero. In his time, he led one of the biggest mass-movements ever in the US Diaspora. He was one of the few who actually tried to implement large-scale economic rebirth for Africans worldwide (e.g., via the ill-fated 'Black Star Line' shipping company), and more.

Houston, Drusilla Dunjee

Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire, Book I: Nations of the Cushite Empire; Marvelous Facts From Authentic Records

Oklahoma City, OK: The Universal Publishing Co.; 1926 [Original]

Baltimore: Black Classic Press; 1985 [Reprint]

Comprehensive overview of Nile Valley civilisations, as well as the African presence in early Asia, the African influence on early Europe, and more.

James, George G.M.

Stolen Legacy: The Greeks were not the Authors of Greek Philosophy, but the People of North Africa, commonly called the Egyptians

New York: Philosophical Library; 1954

Controversial classic by a Guyana-born author, discussing the Nile Valley influence on Ancient Greece. It has recently come under severe (and not wholly unjustified) criticism, by mainstream scholars such as Prof. Mary Lefkowitz, for an over-reliance on dubious secondary sources. Still worth reading for its many original insights.

Nantambu, Kwame

Ancient Egypt's Role in European History  {Article}

In TriniCenter articles, Ancient Egypt's Role in European History, 5th June 2001

Overview of African influence on Ancient Greek philosophers.

Ra Un Nefer Amen

Metu Neter. Vols. 1 & 2

Brooklyn: Kamit Publications; 1990 & 1994

Kemetic philosophical and educational ("mystery") systems. Essential reading.

Rashidi, Runoko

(The) African Presence in India  {Lecture Notes}

In the Global African Presence > Lecture Notes series, The African Presence in India, 19__

African presence in Ancient Indian (Indus Valley) civilisations, and more.

Global African Community: The African Presence in Asia, Australia and the South Pacific

____: Institute of Independent Education; 1994

African presence in, and influence on, Ancient Asia and Australasia.

Introduction to the Study of African Classical Civilizations

London: Karnak House; 1993

African and "AfroAsiatic" civilisations around the world.

Williams, Chancellor James

The Destruction of Black Civilisation: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D.

Chicago: Third World Press; 1974, 1987 [Rev.]

Thought-provoking classic, although there is perhaps too much blame placed on "miscegenation".

Woodson, Carter Godwin

(The) Miseducation of the Negro

__: __; 19__



These works by scholars of European descent serve as an excellent reminder that erudite men (and women) of integrity come in all colours. This is especially noteworthy considering the anti-African tenor of the times during which many of them wrote.






Bernal, Martin

Black Athena--The AfroAsiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, Vol. I

 __: __; 1987

Nile valley and Levantine influence on Ancient Greece. Ironically, it was this book more than any other which got the attention of mainstream scholars, and sparked the ongoing debate about "Afrocentricity". [See: Lefkowitz, Mary - "Not Out Of Africa", below.]

Black Athena--The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, Vol. II: The Archaeological and Documentary Evidence

New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press; 1991

Detailed archaeological, historical and linguistic evidence for the above thesis.

Bryan, Cyril P. (Transl.)

The Papyrus 'Ebers': The First Medical Book

London: G. Bles; 1930 [Original]

Chicago: Ares Publishers; 1974 [Reprint]

Kemetic medical treatise.

Higgins, Godfrey

Anacalypsis: An attempt to draw aside the veil of the Saitic Isis; or an inquiry into the origin of languages, nations, and religions. Vols. 1 & 2

[Self-published?]; 1863 [Original]

New Hyde Park, N.Y. : University Books; 1965 [Reprint]

Ambitious early work that seeks to demonstrate the Ancient "AfroAsiatic" (African, Indian) influences on modern thought.

Lefkowitz, Mary

Not Out Of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History

New York: BasicBooks, 1996

Worth reading for an understanding of the current mainstream ("Eurocentric") point-of-view. Engagingly written, but often relies on "strawman" arguments. Attempts to draw a distinction between "origins" and "influences". [See: Asante, Molefi Kete - "", above.]

Massey, Gerald

Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World. Vols. 1 & 2

London: T. F. Unwin, 1907 [Original]

Baltimore: Black Classic Press; 1992 [Reprint]

In the first volume, Massey elaborates how the first humans, who emerged in Africa, created thought. In the second volume, he examines the Kemetic sources of Christianity.

(A) Book of the Beginnings. Vols. 1 & 2

London: Williams and Norgate, 1881 [Original]

Baltimore: Black Classic Press; 1995 [Reprint]

In volume one, Massey focuses on Egyptian origins in the British Isles. In the second volume, he explores the African/Kemetic roots of the Hebrews, the Akkado-Assyrians, and the Maori.

Natural Genesis {Second Part of 'A Book of the Beginnings'}. Vols. 1 & 2

London: Williams and Norgate, 1883 [Original]

Pomeroy, WA: Health Research Books; 19__ [Reprint]


Murphy, E. J.

History of African Civilization

New York: Dell Publishing Co.; 1978


Myer, Isaac. (Ed.)

(The) Oldest Books in the World

New York: E. W. Dayton, 1900 [Original]

Chicago: Research Associates School Times Publications; 1996 [Reprint]

Discussion of various Kemetic texts.

Volney, (Count) C.F.

(The) Ruins of Empires

____: ____; 19__

Overview of European and world civilisations. Contains one of the first "modern" re-affirmations that Kemet was an African civilisation.


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